AutoCAD R12 June 1992

AutoCAD Release 12 June 1992

เป็นออโต้แคทรุ่นยอดนิยมของผมเลย ชอบมากที่สามารถปรับปรุงแก้ไขอะไรได้สารพัด
มีความสะดวกและทำงานได้ค่อนข้างเร็ว เรียกได้ว่าเริ่มศึกษาจริงจัง และแจ้งเกิดในการใช้โปรแกรม
AutoCAD ก็ R12 นี่แหล่ะครับ เพราะดูมันทุกๆตัว ทุกๆไฟล์ว่ามันทำงานยังไงกันบ้าง

The AutoCAD main menu has been eliminated. After initial configuration, AutoCAD displays the graphics screen.

The Main menu tasks have been replaced by commands. For example, the NEW command starts a new drawing, and the OPEN command opens an existing drawing.

การปรับแต่งค่าต่างๆ สามารถทำได้ในคำสั่ง CONFIG เพียงคำสั่งเดียวก็ปรับได้หลายอย่าง เรียกได้ว่าทุกอย่างรวมอยู่ในนี้

Configuration of AutoCAD without displaying the AutoCAD screen is performed with the -r command-line argument (for example, acad -r).

คำสั่ง OPEN เพื่อเปิดไฟล์ จะทำการ converts ไฟล์ในเวอร์ชั่นเก่า โดยอัตโนมัติ

The pull-down menu has been enhanced:

The menu supports cascading-style submenus.

AutoCAD remembers your last menu item selection.

AutoCAD can disable menu items.

Menu files have been simplified. The AutoLISP portions of the menu are in a separate file.

The screen menu switches to the appropriate page when you enter a command. The MENUCTL system variable controls screen menu switching.

AutoCAD supports a cursor menu that contains Osnap overrides and point filters; this menu can invoke the geometry calculator. The cursor menu appears at the graphics cursor location when you use the appropriate key/-pointing-device button combination. For example, if your mouse has a third button, press the third mouse button to display the cursor menu.

The dialog-box interface has been expanded and enhanced. AutoCAD supports dialog boxes that let you easily view and change information. The information in the dialog box is grouped in logical fashion and displayed in an easy-to-read format.

AutoCAD allows you to change the contents of the status line using the MODEMACRO system variable.

The new BHATCH command was added. It allows you to easily hatch irregularly shaped areas enclosed by one or more entities. After picking a point in the enclosed area, AutoCAD automatically determines and shows you the boundary of the area. For example, you can hatch the area created by two overlapping circles.

The new BPOLY command was added. It allows you to create a Polyline that outlines the area enclosed by one or more entities. A polyline can easily be created along an irregularly shaped area completely enclosed by one or more entities.

Commands with the "DD" prefix bring up dialog boxes. For example, DDRMODES displays the Drawing Modes dialog box. Other commands such as PLOT and SAVEAS also bring up dialogs. Some commands bring up dialog boxes based on the CMDDIA and FILEDIA system variables.

คำสั่งที่เพิ่มไดอะล็อกบล็อค เพื่อการใช้งานที่สะดวกมากยิ่งขึ้น
Dimensioning (DDIM)
Plotting (PLOT)
Hatching (BHATCH)
Object Snap (DDOSNAP)
File manipulation (OPEN, NEW, SAVEAS, FILES)
Layer control (DDLMODES)
Attribute definition (DDATTDEF)
Dimensioning enhancements include:

Creation of basic dimensions.
Addition of prefix or suffix to dimension text.
Use of the DDIM command to display the status of dimensioning system variables in an organized and easy-to-read dialog box format. With this set of dialog boxes, dimensioning parameters can be made without having to remember the specific dimensioning variable names.
Visibility of dimension text during creation and placement.
Dimensioning of nested entities is allowed.

AutoCAD can display selection grips that allow you to manipulate the selected entity. You can use grips to perform operations such as move, stretch, copy, scale, and rotate. You can also perform multiple copy operations with each mode.

Grips appear on an entity as small squares. AutoCAD places the grips at "defining" locations. For example, the grips for a circle appear at the four quadrants and at the center.

The new DDSELECT command lets you control these items:

Entity sort order. You can specify the order in which entities are drawn.
Noun/verb or verb/noun format for commands that require entity selection. With the noun/verb format, you select entities before you enter a command. With the verb/noun format, you enter a command before you select entities.
Selection set creation. You can use additive entity selection or individual entity selection. Additive selection lets you select multiple groups of entities; individual selection allows only one group of entities.
Window creation for selection sets. You can use either two clicks for the window corners or press and drag the window size.

Entity selection enhancements include the following:

The FILTER command that uses a dialog-box interface to let you filter selection sets based on entity properties such as color, layer, and location.
The WPoly and CPoly entity selection options that let you create an irregular closed polygon for selecting entities.
The Fence entity selection option that lets you create select entities by crossing the entity with a Polyline.
The All selection option that selects all entities.
Linetype generation enhancements include the following:

Polylines appear and plot with linetype patterns that flow around vertices.
The Linetype patterns can be displayed at a single size in paper space viewports regardless of the viewport's scale factor if you set PSLTSCALE to 1.
Drawing layers can be locked. You can add entities to a locked layer; however, you cannot remove or change entities on a locked layer.

Speed performance has been improved for these commands:

The DVIEW command uses an improved dynamic rotation interface.

The number of transparent commands has been increased.

The new CAL command is a geometry calculator.

The new ALIGN, ROTATE3D, and MIRROR3D commands let you easily move objects in 3D space.

AutoCAD can be configured to perform timed saves of your drawing. The time between saves is set by the SAVETIME system variable.

Plotting enhancements include the following:

dialog-box interface for plotting setup.
Previewing the plot on screen.
Previewing and adjusting the position of a plot on the selected paper size.
Saving a drawing's plot configuration parameters in a file.
Saving up to 29 plotter configurations in the acad.cfg file.
Combining printer plotters with plotters.
Supporting up to 256 pen colors and widths.
Saving drawing-specific information such as pen color and linetype assignments in plot configuration parameter (PCP) files.
If you use the AutoCAD network license authorization, you can plot from AutoCAD without using a network license by starting AutoCAD with the -p command-line argument (for example, acad -p).

Raster file import/export includes:

Import of common raster-format files such as PCX, TIFF, and GIF using the RASTERIN command. You can import raster images into AutoCAD and have them appear in the drawing.

Export raster images of AutoCAD drawings in several formats using the PLOT command with your plotter configured as a "Raster file export," an Autodesk-supplied plotter driver.

PostScript support lets you do the following:

Import PostScript files. The PSIN command lets you to import a PostScript file, resize the image and display a rendering of the image on a screen. Once you have a drawing that has PostScript information, you can send it to a PostScript file or printer. The output retains the PostScript information.

Control the quality of the rendered PostScript image. The -PSQUALITY system variable lets you adjust the quality of the rendered image.

Export PostScript files. The PSOUT command lets you export the current view of your drawing as a PostScript EPS file. PostScript images and fonts are retained.

Use PostScript Type 1 fonts with text. AutoCAD supports Type 1 fonts in outline form and on screen when you plot. With the COMPILE command, -AutoCAD can create SHX Shape/Font files from the PostScript PFB font files.

AutoCAD "soft-locks" external references (locks externally referenced files during loading).

The REINIT command lets you reinitialize your I/O ports, display, digitizer, and acad.pgp the AutoCAD Program Parameters file.

Enhanced digitizer support allows you to calibrate your tablet with independent X and Y axis scaling or projective scaling with the TABLET command. In projective scaling, the calibrated distance between two points on a tablet depends on both the physical distance between the two points and their location on the tablet (a limited form of rubber sheeting).

AutoCAD Render is included with AutoCAD. Render lets you create rendered images of your 3D object within AutoCAD. You can render images to an AutoCAD viewport, to full screen on a single-screen display, or to a separate window on a dual-screen setup. You can also send rendered images out to printers or files.

Region modeling is included with AutoCAD. Using closed 2D areas you can create booleaned regions similar to AME solids. Regions can be edited, can contain holes, and can be used to compute area properties and used for other analysis.

AutoCAD SQL Extension (ASE)/Autodesk SQL Interface (ASI) is included with AutoCAD. ASE supplies ADS interfaces that lets you -establish links between AutoCAD and an SQL database. You can also build ADS applications between AutoCAD and SQL databases using the Autodesk SQL Interface (ASI).

Advanced Modeling Extension R2.1 is supported by AutoCAD Release 12. Improvements in AME R2.1 from AME R1 include region modeling and improvements in these areas: solid primitive creation and handling, accuracy, performance, support for additional applications such as interference analysis, and external application support via API.

The AutoCAD programmable dialog box facility lets you create -AutoCAD Development System (ADS) or AutoLISP applications that use AutoCAD dialog boxes. For example, you can create dialog boxes that perform functions similar to the AutoCAD dialog boxes that display and change settings or select files. The code used to create an AutoCAD dialog box is platform independent.

The ADI (Autodesk Device Interface) Version 4.2 upgrade was provided primarily to facilitate optimal usage of display drivers when using the Render facility in AutoCAD. Other enhancements and bug fixes were also made.

SAGET library of extended ADS functions that allow AutoLISP programs to access ADS routines.

The PLOT command can be called from ADS and AutoLISP

New Commands -- R12

The following section describes the new commands for AutoCAD Release 12. Unless noted otherwise, coordinate input to all commands is relative to the current UCS. Commands flagged with a ` prefix can be used transparently.

Displays banner and acad.msg in a dialog box

Boundary hatching dialog box

Creates a Polyline that outlines a closed boundary created by one or more entities

Performs a process formerly done via the Main menu and can compile PostScript PFB files

Starts the AutoCAD configuration process

Attribute definition dialog box

Attribute extraction dialog box

Change entity property dialog box

Dimension variable dialog boxes

Insert block dialog box

Grips settings dialog box

OSNAP control dialog box

Rename named objects dialog box. Allows the use of wildcard characters

Entity selection control dialog box

UCS control dialog box

Units of measurement control dialog box

Creates a new drawing

Opens an existing drawing file for editing. Converts and recovers the file if necessary

Controls the display of an imported PostScript image while you position it in the drawing

Fills a closed Polyline region with a PostScript fill pattern

Imports a PostScript graphics file and optionally renders an image of the graphic in the drawing

Exports a PostScript graphics file

Saves current drawing prompting for a name only if the current drawing is unnamed

Reinitializes I/O ports, digitizer, display, and the Program Parameters file (e.g. acad.pgp)

Saves current drawing to a user-specified file and renames the current drawing

Displays the status of the drawing's oct-tree

In addition, all of the previously listed commands that permit general object selection support the new All, WPolygon, CPolygon, and Fence, options to select all entities in the drawing.

There are also new AutoCAD commands with the following Autodesk-supplied ADS applications:

AutoCAD SQL Extension
AutoCAD Render
AutoCAD Region Modeler
The SQL commands are described in the AutoCAD SQL Extension Reference Manual, and the Render commands are described in the AutoCAD Render Reference Manual.

The Region Modeler commands and the following commands are described in the AutoCAD Extras Manual. Commands flagged with a ` prefix can be used transparently:

New commands described in the AutoCAD Extras Manual

Moves selected objects in 3D space

dialog-box interface to load AutoLISP and ADS applications or unload ADS applications

Geometry calculator

dialog-box interface to view and change entity properties such as location, color, layer, linetype, and thickness

dialog-box interface that lets you create selection sets based on entity properties such as location, color, and layer

Imports GIF-format raster files

Mirrors objects about a plane in 3D

Imports PCX-format raster files

Rotates objects about an axis in 3D

Imports TIFF-format raster files

Changed Commands -- R12

The following section describes changes to existing commands between -AutoCAD Releases 11 and 12. Unless noted otherwise, coordinate input to all commands is relative to the current UCS. (Commands flagged with a ` prefix can be used transparently.)

Can be used transparently

The command prompt shows the defaults for rectangular/polar arrays

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

The command prompt lists the Elev option that lets you change an entity's elevation

Sets the CIRCLERAD system variable. The command prompt shows the default radius

Can be used transparently

Displays hatching parameters for hatch blocks if the appropriate Xdata is present. Pauses after each screen of text

Improved attribute entity editing dialog box

Improved text and attribute entity editing dialog box

Enhanced dialogs for color, layer control, and text style selection

Improved layer control dialog box that includes capability to filter layer names and supports locked layers

New check boxes for solid fill, quick text, and highlighting selected entities added, and axis control removed

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Sets and uses the DONUTID and DONUTOD system variables. The command prompt shows the default donut inside and outside diameter

Can be used transparently (to be dropped in the next release)

Improved dynamic rotation interface. X and Y rotation combined into one screen

Using entity grips, you can explode more than one item at a time. EXPLODE places the resulting entities in the Previous selection set

Can be used transparently. Allows you to perform file-related utility functions such as renaming, deleting, and unlocking a file

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Stores hatching parameters in Xdata of hatch block reference

Faster hidden line algorithm

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently. The Lock and Unlock options have been added to the command prompt

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Displays hatching parameters for hatch blocks if the appropriate Xdata is present. Pauses after each screen of text

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Allows control of polyline linetype elaboration. The "Ltype gen" option has been added to the command line

Dialog-box interface and new and enhanced features including: 256-color and multiple-line-width support, plot preview, multiple-plotter configurations, ADS and AutoLISP support, and improved paper handling

Sets POLYSIDES system variable. The command prompt shows the default number of polygon sides and inscribed or circumscribed selection

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently and closes the script file when complete

Can be used transparently

Can be used transparently. Does not list Axis on/off status

Can be used transparently

The Calibrate option allows input of more than two sets of points

Can be used transparently. Indicates "Next automatic save in: nnn" if automatic saves are enabled

Can be used transparently

All forms preserve entity handles in output

Accepts point in response to initial prompt. Assumes the point is the first corner of a Window

Deleted Commands -- R12


New System Variables -- R12

This section describes the new system variables in AutoCAD Releases 12. Values for most system variables are expressed relative to the current UCS.

Controls whether AUDIT log files (ADT files) are written

The default circle radius. If negative, the absolute value is used

A bit code that shows the active status of commands and dialog-boxes. If nonzero, a command or dialog box is active

Controls whether dialog boxes are used with the PLOT command

The active command including any transparent command

A bit code showing the drawing database modification status. If nonzero, the drawing database has been modified

The default donut inside diameter; may be zero. If negative, the absolute value is used

The default donut outside diameter. Must be nonzero; if negative, the absolute value is used. If DONUTID is larger than DONUTOD, the two values are swapped by next command

The current drawing code page

Indicates drawing title status. Either the drawing has a name (1) or it doesn't (0)

Controls the ability to write to the current drawing's file. If it is 0 (zero), you can edit the current drawing but you cannot update the drawing's file. If it is 1 (one), you can update the drawing's file

Controls the assignment of grips on entities within a block

The color of nonselected grips; drawn as a box outline

The color of selected grips; drawn as a filled box

Turns entity grips on and off. With selection set grips, you can move, stretch, rotate scale, and mirror entities

The size of box drawn to display a grip

The default hatch pattern angle

The default hatch pattern doubling for "U" user-defined patterns

The default hatch pattern name and hatching style

The default hatch pattern scale factor

The default hatch pattern line spacing for "U" user-defined patterns

The default block name for DDINSERT or INSERT command

The user's login name

Controls tracing of macro expressions. This is a hidden variable (not listed by ordinary SETVAR ?)

Controls the automatic swapping of the screen menu when a command is entered

Controls the text in AutoCAD status line. You can specify text such as the drawing name, date and time, or special modes

The default offset distance

Controls how entities are added and removed from a selection set. When selecting individual entities, you can either add entities to a selection set or make the current pick the selection set

Controls automatic windowing when the Select objects: prompt appears. If Auto is not the default mode, it can be selected using the keyword Auto

Controls how a selection window is created. To specify the diagonal corners, you can either use two clicks, or click and drag

Controls how entity selection works so that you can select objects first, and then use an edit/inquiry command

Controls Polyline linetype elaboration around vertices

The default polyline width

Changes the default plotter, based on its assigned description

Changes the default plotter, based on its assigned number

The default number of sides for the POLYGON command

Controls paper-space linetype scaling

Specifies the PostScript prolog that AutoCAD uses with the PSOUT command

Controls the rendering quality of an imported PostScript file

Controls the initialization of the I/O ports, digitizer, display, plotter, and acad.pgp file

The current auto-save file

The filename you save the drawing to

The automatic-save time interval, in minutes

The number of boxes in the screen menu area of the graphics area

A bit code indicating the graphics/text state of the -AutoCAD display (graphics mode and dual-screen configuration status)

The default shape name

A bit code that specifies classes of oct-tree traversal operations that should return entities sorted in database (entity creation) order

The current system code page

Controls the use of Tablet mode

A four-digit code that specifies the number of times the tree-structured spatial index may divide into branches. This affects how quickly AutoCAD searches the database

A bit code that indicates the state of the UNDO feature

The number of marks that have been placed in the UNDO control stream by the UNDO command's Mark option

Five string variables; accepts embedded spaces

Controls whether external reference log files (XGL files) are written

Changed System Variables -- R12

The following section describes changes to existing system variables between -AutoCAD Releases 11 and 12. Values for most system variables are expressed relative to the current User Coordinate System.



Read/ Write

Allows negative numbers to specify scale factor to be used only in paper space

Allows negative numbers to specify reference dimensions




Extended to allow control of an external reference layer's color and linetype

Deleted System Variables -- R12


The DXF header variables corresponding to these deleted variables have also been deleted.